piwik-script

English Intern
INSTITUT FÜR GEOGRAPHIE UND GEOLOGIE

Prof. Dr. Hartwig Frimmel

Lehrstuhlinhaber des
Lehrstuhls für Geodynamik und Geomaterialforschung

Tel.: +49 931 31-85420
Tel. Sekretariat: +49 931 31-85421
Fax: +49 931 31-87344
E-Mail: hartwig.frimmel@uni-wuerzburg.de 

Institut für Geographie und Geologie
Am Hubland
97074 Würzburg

Campus Hubland Süd
Geographiegebäude
Zimmer 330

während des Wintersemesters 2019-2020 am Mittwoch von 10.00 bis 12.00 Uhr

  • Mineralogie
  • Geologie
  • Lagerstätten
  • Wirtschaftsgeologie
  • Petrologie metamorpher Gesteine
  • Geochemie von Hydrothermalsystemen

Economic geological analyses of the future availability of mineral resources

Production cycles of non‐renewable georesources are being modeled – both into the future and the past - and the total mineable amount of a given georesource and the prediction of future availability of such resources are being approximated on a regional and global scale. This research is aimed at aiding decision makers with regard to formulating policies on securing the future supply of critical georesources.
Models refer to both likely future production cycles as well as historic production.
Concrete examples include golduranium, copper, crude oil, and mercury.


Genesis of gold deposits

Several projects on the genesis of the world’s largest accumulation of gold in the Mesoarchaean Witwatersrand Basin in South Africa and similar Witwatersrand-type deposits elsewhere (Brazil, Canada, India, Australia).

In spite of the enormous economic significance of the Witwatersrand gold, its genesis has remained for more than a century "the most disputed issue in the history of economic geology". Our results made a significant contribution to the on-going debate on the origin of the Witwatersrand gold. Although in its present form most of the gold appears late in the paragenetic sequence and thus to be the product of hydrothermal precipitation, overwhelming evidence exists for an autochthonous, detrital source of the gold within the conglomeratic metasedimentary host rocks. Thus a modified palaeoplacer model is preferred to explain the available data/observations on this real giant amongst gold districts.

In a follow-up study, the source of the huge amounts of detrital gold particles in the Witwatersrand Basin is being evaluated. To this effect the pre-Witwatersrand basement rocks are being studied. First results point to a sulphidic IOCG-style low-grade gold enrichment in some of these rocks, formed during a major gold event at about 3 billion years, when the dominant crust-forming regime changed from a plume-driven to plate-tectonically driven Earth.

In a further project, the distribution of gold in the Earth’s crust has been evaluated with the aim of pinpointing the first-order controls on the concentration of gold into ore bodies within the continental crust.


Sediment-hosted base metal deposits

Study of the genesis, fluid characteristics and tectonic as well as palaeoclimatic setting of a variety of sediment hosted Cu-, Pb-, and/or Zn-sulphide deposits. Examples include the following ore districts: Otavi Mountainland, northern Namibia, Rosh Pinah, southern Namibia, and Bushmanland, northern Namaqualand, South Africa


Geodynamic evolution of southwestern Gondwana

Correlation of Pan-African orogenic belts in southwestern and central Africa with their counterparts in South America gives insights into the birth of a supercontinent (Gondwana) and the relationship between tectonics, palaeoclimate, ocean water chemistry, evolution of life and metallogeny. Special emphasis has been on the Gariep and Saldania Belts in southern Africa and the Congo Belt in central Africa. This work forms part of two International Geoscience Programmes (IGCP 478 and 512) and the DFG-supported priority programme onSouth Atlantic Margin Processes and Links with Onshore Evolution (SAMPLE).


Precambrian palaeoclimate

Using sedimentary geochemistry and style of mineralization as proxies, the evolution of the atmosphere and hydrosphere are being reconstructed. Special focus of this research is on the Archaean, the time before the big oxygenation of the atmosphere, and on the Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian, when our planet experienced some extreme climate changes. Study targets include Archaean sedimentary successions, such as those in the Witwatersrand Basin, Palaeoproterozoic sedimentary successions in Guyana, Neoproterozoic sequences in the former West-Gondwana, and black shale deposits on the Yangtze Platform in South China.


High-grade metamorphic terranes in Antarctica

Meso- to Neoproterozoic tectonic belts exposed in isolated nunataks on the periphery of the huge East Antarctic ice mass play a pivotal role in the palaeogeographic reconstruction of an inferred supercontinent that existed prior to Gondwana, commonly referred to as Rodinia or Palaeopangaea. As part of the South African National Antarctic Programme, we studied the tectono-thermal evolution recorded by one of these belts, which is closest to Africa, i.e. the Maud Belt in Western and Central Dronning Maud Land.

Similar studies have been conducted as part of the DFG-supported priority programme on Antarctic research on rocks from the Shackleton Range. The results revealed the presence of three distinct terranes that became juxtaposed during multi-stage Pan-African tectonothermal events in the course of Gondwana amalgamation. Our single zircon data also gave new insights into the behavior of Hf isotopes in zircon during metamorphism.

More recently, this work has been extended to southern India, where in a DFG-supported project, in cooperation with Indian partners, ultrahigh-temperature metamorphic rocks are being studied both in the "Grenvillian" Eastern Ghats Belt and the "Pan-African" Madurai Block.

Degrees:

PhD University of Vienna, Austria (Geology and Petrology) 1987

Employment:

Since 2007
Professor, Chair: Geodynamics and Geomaterials Research, Institute of Geography and Geology, University of Würzburg

2004-2007
Professor of Mineralogy and Petrology, Head of Institute of Mineralogy, University of Würzburg

1989-2004
from lecturer to associate Professor, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Cape Town

1987-1989
Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Vienna
 

Additional posts held:

2013-2017
Advisor to the European Commission´s "European Innovation Partnership on Raw Materials"

2013-2016
Dean for student affairs, Faculty of Philosophy I, Univ. Würzburg

since 2012
Voting member of the Cryogenian subcommission and corresponding member of the Ediacaran subcommission of the international Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS)

2012-2014
Municipal council member of Leinach, Germany

2012
Co-ordinator of the 1st SGA-SEG-UNESCO-IUGS Short Course on African Metallogeny in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

since 2011
Member of the Academy of Geosciences and Geotechnologies, Germany

since 2011
Founding member of the Bavarian Georesources Centre (BGC)

since 2011
Goodwill ambassador of the Geological Society of Africa (GSAf)

since 2010
Executive Council member of the Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits (SGA), Promotion Manager 2010-2011, Treasurer since 2012

since 2010
Member of the interdepartmental advisory board for the Bavarian government on mineral resource strategies

since 2007
Honorary Research Associate, University of Cape Town

2007
Member of Organising Committee of the 9th Biennial SGA Meeting, Dublin

2007
Chairman: Distinguished Lecturer Committee, Soc. Econ. Geol. (SEG)

2006-2007
President of the Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits (SGA)

2006-
Guest Professor, University of Science and Technology, Hefei, China

2004- 2007
South African representative on the Geoscience Scientific Standing Committee of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR)

2004-2005
Vice-president of the Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits (SGA)

2004-2012
Member of the Ediacaran subcommission of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS)

2003-2007
Co-leader of International Geoscience Programme IGCP 478, Organiser of international field workshop in South Africa/Namibia in 2003

2002-2005
Council member of the Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits (SGA)

2000-2004
Council member of the Mineralogical Association of South Africa

2000-2006
Member of the Committee for South African Stratigraphy

1999-2004
Chairman of the Western Cape Branch of the Geological Society of South Africa

1998-2005
Project Leader of the Earth Sciences subprogramme within the South African National Antarctic Programme (SANAP)

1999
Member of Organising Committee of the 11th International Conference of the Geological Society of Africa

1998-2003
Council member of the Geological Society of South Africa

1995-2001
SGA (Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits) Regional Vice-President for Africa

1994-1995
Guest-lecturer at the Department of Petrology and the Department of Geochemistry, University of Vienna

Total of 120 research articles in peer-reviewed international journals, 27 chapters in peer-reviewed books, 33 peer-reviewed conference proceedings, 2 books, 36 papers in local journals or unrefereed reports, 101 conference abstracts, 14 major reports/theses, 5 excursion guidebooks.

Web of Science: Total of 2768 ISI citations (2412 without self-citations), avg. citation per paper = 26, h-index = 33 (as per 29/11/2018).

Google Scholar: Total of 4999 citations, h-index = 43, i10-index = 99 (as per 29/11/2018).


Research articles in international peer-reviewed journals:

2019

[120] Kawohl, A., Frimmel, H.E., Bite, A., Whymark, W., Debaille, V., 2019. Very distant Sudbury impact dykes revealed by drilling the Temagami geophysical anomaly. Precambr. Res. 324, 220-235.

[119] Nwaila, G.T., Frimmel, H.E., 2019, Highly siderophile element concentrations in Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic marine shales of the Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa. Mineral. Petrol., 113, 307-327.

[118] Nwaila, G.T., Ghorbani, Y., Becker, M., Frimmel, H.E., Peterson, J., Zhang, S.E., 2019, Geometallurgical approach for implications of ore blending on cyanide leaching and adsorption behaviour of the Witwatersrand gold ores, South Africa. Natural Resources, in press.

[117] Nwaila, G. T., Zhang, S. E., Frimmel, H. E., Manzi, M. S. D., Dohm, C., Durrheim, R. J., Burnett, M., Tolmay, L., 2019, Local and target exploration of conglomerate-hosted gold deposits using machine learning algorithms: a case study of the Witwatersrand gold ores, South Africa. Natural Resources Research,doi.org/10.1007/s11053-019-09498-1

[116] Will, T., Gaucher, C., Li, Q., Ling, X.-X., Li, X.-H., Frimmel, H., 2019, Neoproterozoic magmatic and metamorphic events in the Cuchilla Dionisio Terrane, Uruguay, and possible correlations across the South Atlantic. Precambr. Res. 320, 303-322.

2017 - 2018

[115] Frimmel, H.E., 2018, Episodic concentration of gold to ore grade through Earth’s history. Earth Sci. Rev., 180, 148-158.

[114] Höhn, S., Koglin, N., Klopf, L., Schüssler, U., Tragelehn, H., Frimmel, H.E., Zeh, A., Brätz, H., 2018, Geochronology, stratigraphy and geochemistry of Cambro‑Ordovician, Silurian and Devonian volcanic rocks of the Saxothuringian Zone in NE Bavaria (Germany)—new constraints for Gondwana break up and ocean–island magmatism. Int. J. Earth Sci. 107, 359-377.

[113] Prakash, D., Yadav, R., Tewari, S., Frimmel, H.E., Koglin, N., Sachan, H., Yadav M., 2018, Geochronology and phase equilibria modeling of ultra-high temperature sapphirine+quartz-bearing granulite at Usilampatti, Madurai block, southern India.  Geological Journal 53, 139-158.

[112] Whymark, W.E., Frimmel, H.E., 2018, Regional gold-enrichment of conglomerates in Paleoproterozoic supergroups formed during the 2.45 Ga rifting of Kenorland. Ore Geol. Rev. 101, 985-996.

[111] Will, T., Frimmel, H.E., 2018, Where does a continent prefer to break up? Lessons from the South Atlantic margins. Gondwana Res. 53, 9-19.

[110] Yu, B., Zeng, Q., Frimmel, H.E., Wang, Y., Guo, W., Sun, G., Zhou, T., Li, J., 2018, Genesis of the Wulong gold deposit, northeastern North China Craton: Constraints from fluid inclusions, H-O-S-Pb isotopes, and pyrite trace element concentrations. Ore Geol. Rev. 102, 313-337.

 [109] Dourgham, I.A., & Fawzy, K.M., Frimmel, H.E., 2017, Ore minerals and geochemical characterization of the Dungash gold deposit, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Arab. J. Geosci. 10, 145, 17 p., DOI 10.1007/s12517-017-2891-6.

[108] Höhn, S, Frimmel, H.E., Debaille, V., Pašava, J., Debouge, W., 2017, Synorogenic Cu-Zn deposit formation at Kupferberg (Bavaria, Germany) evidenced by pyrite chemistry and copper and sulfur isotopes. Mineral. Deposita 52, 1145-1156.

[107] Nwaila, G., Frimmel, H.E., Minter, W.E.L., 2017, Provenance and geochemical variations in shales of the Mesoarchaean Witwatersrand Supergroup. J. Geol., 125, 399-422.

[106] Prakash, D., Chandra Singh, P., Tewari, S., Joshi, M., Frimmel, H.E., M., Hokada, T., Rakotonandrasana, T., 2017, Petrology, pseudosection modelling and U-Pb geochronology of silica-deficient Mg-Al granulites from the Jagtiyal section of Karimnagar granulite terrane, northeastern Dharwar Craton, India. Precambr. Res. 299, 177-194.

2015-2016

[105] Kawohl, A., Frimmel, H.E., 2016, Isoferroplatinum-pyrrhotite-troilite intergrowth as evidence of desulfurization in the Merensky Reef at Rustenburg (western Bushveld Complex, South Africa). Mineral. Magazine, 80, 1041-1053.

[104] Will, T., Frimmel, H.E., Pfänder, J., 2016, Möwe Bay dykes, northwestern Namibia: Geochemical and geochronological evidence for different mantle source regions during the Cretaceous opening of the South Atlantic. Chem. Geol., 444, 141-157.

[103] Frimmel, H.E., Hennigh, Q., 2015, First whiffs of atmospheric oxygen triggered onset of crustal gold cycle. Mineral. Deposita, 50, 5-23.

[102] Grosch, E.G., Frimmel, H.E., Abu-Alam, T., Košler, J., 2015, Metamorphic and age constraints on crustal reworking in the western HU Sverdrupfjella: implications for the evolution of western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. J. Geol. Soc. London, 172, 499-518.

[101] Prakash, D., Deepak, Chandra Singh, P., Singh, C.K., Arima, M., Frimmel, H.E., 2015, Reaction textures and metamorphic evolution of sapphirine–spinel-bearing and associated granulites from Diguva Sonaba, Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt, India. Geol. Mag., 152, 316-340.

[100] Spiegl, T., Paeth, H., Frimmel, H.E., 2015, Evaluating key parameters for the initiation of a Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth with a single Earth System Model of intermediate complexity. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 415, 100-110.

[99] Will, T.M., Lee, S.-H., Schmädicke, E., Frimmel, H.E., Okrusch, M., 2015, Variscan terrane boundaries in the Odenwald-Spessart basement, Mid-German Crystalline Zone: New evidence from ocean ridge, intraplate and arc-derived metabasaltic rocks. Lithos, 220-223, 23-42.

2013 - 2014

[98] Donadel, A.K., Hoefer-Oellinger, G., Frimmel, H.E., Schrott, L., 2014, Geological evolution of post-glacial river mouths – Saalach and Königsseeache (Austria). Austrian J. Earth Sci., 107, 60-73.

[97] Frimmel, H. E., 2014, A giant Mesoarchean crustal gold-enrichment episode: Possible causes and consequences for exploration: Society of Economic Geologists, Special Publication, 18, 209-234.

[96] Frimmel, H.E., Schedel, S., Brätz, H., 2014, Uraninite chemistry as forensic tool for provenance analysis. Appl. Geochem., 48, 104-121.

[95] Höhn, S., Frimmel, H.E., Pasava, J., 2014, The rare earth element potential of kaolin deposits in the Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic, Austria). Mineral. Deposita, 49, 967-986.

[94] Will, T., Frimmel, H.E., Gaucher, C., Bossi, J., 2014, Geochemical and isotope evidence for initiation of Cretaceous South Atlantic opening along a former Neoproterozoic back-arc basin — Implications for the location of the main Pan-African suture in south west Gondwana. Lithos 202-203, 363-381.

[93] Depiné, M., Frimmel, H.E., Emsbo, P., Koenig, A.E., Kern, M., 2013, Trace element distribution in uraninite from Mesoarchaean Witwatersrand conglomerates (South Africa) supports placer model and magmatogenic source. Mineralium Deposita 48, 423-435.

[92] Frimmel, H.E., Depiné, M., Emsbo, P., Koenig, A.E., Kern, M., 2013, Reply to comments by T. Oberthür on “Trace element distribution in uraninite from Mesoarchaean Witwatersrand conglomerates (South Africa) supports placer model and magmatogenic source”. Mineralium Deposita 48, 1051-1053.

[91] Frimmel, H.E., Basei, M.A.S., Correa, V.X., Mbangula, N., 2013, A new lithostratigraphic subdivision and geodynamic model for the Pan-African western Saldania Belt, South Africa. Precambrian Research 231, 218-235.

[90] Kounov, A., Viola, G., Dunkl, I., Frimmel, H.E., 2013, Southern African perspectives on the long-term morpho-tectonic evolution of cratonic interiors. Tectonophysics, 601, 177-191.

[89] Mosoh Bambi, C. K., Frimmel, H. E., Zeh, A., and  Suh, C. E., 2013, Age and origin of Pan-African granites and associated U-Mo mineralization at Ekomédion, southwestern Cameroon: Journal of African Earth Sciences, 88, 15-37.

[88] Pašava, J., Frimmel, H.E., Vymazalová, A., Dobeš, P., Jukov, A.V.,  Koneev, R.I., 2013, A two-stage evolution model for the Amantaytau orogenic-type gold deposit in Uzbekistan. Mineralium Deposita 48, 825-840.

[87] Will, T., Frimmel, H.E., 2013, The influence of inherited structures on dyke emplacement during Gondwana break-up in southwestern Africa. J. Geol., 121, 455-474.

2011 - 2012

[86] Mosoh Bambi, C.K., Suh, C.E., Nzenti, J.P., Frimmel, H.E., 2012, U-Mo mineralization potential in Pan-African granites, southwestern Cameroon: Economic geology of the Ekomédion prospect. Journal of African Earth Sciences 65, 25-45.

[85] Zhao, H.-X., Jiang, S.-Y., Frimmel, H.E., Dai, B.-Z., Ma, L., 2012, Geochemistry, geochronology and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopes of two Mesozoic granitoids in the Xiaoqinling gold district: Implication for large-scale lithospheric thinning in the North China Craton. Chemical Geology, 294/295, 173-189.

[84] Frimmel, H.E., Basei, M.S., Gaucher, C., 2011, Neoproterozoic geodynamic evolution of SW-Gondwana: a southern African perspective. International Journal of Earth Sciences, 100, 323-354.

[83] Frimmel, H.E., Müller, J., 2011, Estimates of mineral resource availability – How reliable are they? Akad. Geowiss. Geotechn., Veröffentl., 28, 39-62.

[82] Koglin, N., Frimmel, H.E.­­­, Minter, W.E.L.­­, Brätz, H., 2011, Reply to Reimer and Mossman. Comment on “Trace-element characteristics of different pyrite types in Mesoarchaean to Palaeoproterozoic placer deposits” by Koglin et al. (Mineralium Deposita 45, 259-280, 2010). Mineralium Deposita 46, 839-840.

[81] Müller, J., Frimmel, H.E., 2011, Abscissa-transforming second order polynomial functions to approximate the unknown historic production of non-renewable resources. Mathematical Geosciences, 43, 625-634.

[80] Zhao, H.-X., Frimmel, H.E., Jiang, S.-Y., Dai, B.-Z., 2011, LA-ICP-MS trace element analysis of pyrite from the Xiaoqinling gold district, China: Implications for ore genesis. Ore Geology Reviews 43, 142-153.

[79] Zhao, H.-X., Jiang, S.-Y., Frimmel, H.E., 2011, A rare Bi-Pb tellurosulfide, PbBi4Te4S3, from the Wenyu gold deposit in the Xiaoqinling gold province, China. Canadian Mineralogist 49, 1297-1304.

2009 - 2010

[78] Frimmel, H.E., 2010, On the reliability of stable carbon isotopes for Neoproterozoic chemostratigraphic correlation. Precambrian Research, 182, 239-253.

[77] Koglin, N., Zeh, A., Frimmel, H.E., Gerdes, A., 2010, New constraints on the auriferous Witwatersrand sediment provenance from combined detrital zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope data for the Eldorado Reef (Central Rand Group, South Africa). Precambrian Research, 183, 817-824.

[76] Koglin, N., Frimmel, H.E.­­­, Minter, W.E.L.­­, Brätz, H., 2010, Trace-element characteristics of different pyrite types in Mesoarchaean to Palaeoproterozoic placer deposits. Mineralium Deposita 45, 259-280.

[75] Müller, J., Frimmel, H.E., 2010, Numerical analysis of historic gold production cycles and implications for future sub-cycles. The Open Geology Journal 4, 35-40.

[74] Pašava J, Frimmel HE, Taiyi L, Koubová M, Martínek K (2010) Extreme PGE concentrations in lower Cambrian acid tuff layer from the Kunyang phosphate deposit, Yunnan Province, South China – possible PGE source for lower Cambrian Mo-Ni-polyelement ore beds. Economic Geology, 105, 1047-1056.

[73] Will, T.M., Frimmel, H.E., Zeh, A., Le Roux, P., Schmädicke, E., 2010, Tectonic and crustal evolution of the Shackleton Range, East Antarctica: geochemical and isotope constraints. Precambrian Research 180, 85-112.

[72] Will T.M., Schmädicke E., Frimmel H.E., 2010, Deep solid-state equilibration and deep melting of abyssal peridotite from the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge at the Kane Transform area (MARK), 23°N, ODP leg 153. Mineralogy and Petrology, 100, 185-200.

[71] Zeh, A. , Gerdes, A., Will, T.M., Frimmel, H.E., 2010, Hafnium isotope homogenisation in metasedimentary rocks under amphibolite-facies conditions (<650°C): examples from the Shackleton Range (Antarctica). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 74, 4740-4758.

[70] Frimmel, H.E., 2009, Trace element distribution in Neoproterozoic carbonates as palaeoenvironmental indicator, Chemical Geology 258, 338-353.

[69] Frimmel, H.E., Zeh, A., Lehrmann, B., Hallbauer, D.K., Frank, W., 2009, Geochemical and geochronological constraints on the nature of the immediate basement beneath the Mesoarchaean auriferous Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa. Journal of Petrology, 50, 2187-2220.

[68] Jiang, S.-Y., Pi, D.-H., Heubeck, C., Frimmel, H.E., Liu, Y.-P., Deng, H.-L., Ling, H.-F., Yang, J.-H., Zhu, M., 2009, Early Cambrian ocean anoxia in South China, Nature, 459, E5-E6.

[67] Will, T.M., Zeh, A., Gerdes, A., Frimmel, H.E., Millar, I.L., Schmädicke, E., 2009, Palaeoproterozoic to Palaeozoic magmatic and metamorphic events in the Shackleton Range, East Antarctica: Constraints from zircon and monazite dating, and implications for the amalgamation of Gondwana. Precambrian Research, 172, 25-45.

2007 - 2008

 [66] Basei, M. A. S., Frimmel, H. E., Nutman, A. P., Preciozzi, F., 2008, West Gondwana amalgamation based on detrital zircon ages from Neoproterozoic Ribeira and Dom Feliciano belts of South America and comparison with coeval sequences from SW Africa, in Pankhurst, R. J., Trouw, R. A. J., De Brito Neves, B. B., and de Wit, M. J. (eds.), West Gondwana: Pre-Cenozoic Correlations Across the South Atlantic Region, Geol. Soc. London, Spec. Publ. No. 294, p. 239-256.

[65] Bisnath, A., McCourt, S., Frimmel, H.E., Buthelezi, S.B., 2008, The metamorphic evolution of the Tugela Terrane, Natal Belt, South Africa. South Afr. J. Geol. 111, 369-386.

[64] Frimmel, H. E., 2008, Earth's continental crustal gold endowment: Earth Planet. Sci. Letters, 267, 45-55.

[63] Frimmel, H. E., 2008, An evaporitic facies in Neoproterozoic post-glacial carbonates: the Gifberg Group, South Africa: Gondwana Research 13, p. 453-468.

[62] Frimmel, H. E., Groves, D. I., Kirk, J., Ruiz, J., Chesley, J., and Minter, W. E. L., 2007, Reply to Comments by Thomas O. Reimer on “The Formation and Preservation of the Witwatersrand Goldfields, the World’s Largest Gold Province”. SEG Newsletter, No. 68, p. 31.

[61] Grosch, E. G., Bisnath, A., Frimmel, H. E., and  Board, W. S., 2007, Geochemistry and tectonic setting of mafic rocks in Western Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica: Implications for the geodynamic evolution of the Proterozoic Maud Belt: Journal of the Geological Society, London, v. 164, p. 465-475.

2005 - 2006

[60] Bisnath, A., Frimmel, H. E., Armstrong, R. A., and Board, W. S., 2006, Tectono-thermal evolution of the Maud Belt: New SHRIMP U-Pb zircon data from Gjelsvikfjella, Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. Precambrian Research, v. 150, p. 95-121.

[59] Frimmel, H. E., Tack, L., Basei, M. S., and  Nutman, A. P., 2006, Provenance and chemostratigraphy of the Neoproterozoic West Congolian Group in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Journal of African Earth Sciences, v. 46, p. 221-239.

[58] Jacob, J., Ward, J.D., Bluck, B.J., Scholz, R.A., and Frimmel, H.E., 2006, Some observations on diamondiferous bedrock gully trapsites on Late Cainozoic, marine-cut platforms of the Sperrgebiet, Namibia: Ore Geology Reviews, v. 28, p. 493-506.

[57] Alchin, D. J., Frimmel, H. E., and Jacobs, L. E., 2005, Stratigraphic setting of the metalliferous Rosh Pinah Formation and the Spitzkop and Koivib Suites in the Pan‑African Gariep Belt, southwestern Namibia: South African Journal of Geology, v. 108, p. 19-34.

[56] Basei, M. A. S., Frimmel, H. E., Nutman, A. P., Preciozzi, F., and Jacob, J., 2005, A connection between the Neoproterozoic Dom Feliciano (Brazil/Uruguay) and Gariep (Namibia/South Africa) orogenic belts - evidence from a reconnaissance provenance study: Precambrian Research, v. 139, p. 195-221.

[55] Bisnath, A., and Frimmel, H. E., 2005, Metamorphic evolution of the Maud Belt: P-T-t path for high-grade gneisses in Gjelsvikfjella, Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica Journal of African Earth Sciences, v. 43, p. 505-524.

[54] Board, W. S., Frimmel, H. E., and  Armstrong, R. A., 2005, Pan-African tectonism in the western Maud Belt: P-T-t path for high-grade gneisses in the H.U. Sverdrupfjella, East Antarctica: Journal of Petrology, v. 46, p. 671-699.

[53] Frimmel, H.E., 2005, Archaean atmospheric evolution: Evidence from the Witwatersrand gold fields, South Africa: Earth Science Reviews, v. 70, p. 1-46.

[52] Frimmel, H.E., 2005, The case for a modified paleoplacer model for Witwatersrand gold: SEG Newsletter, No. 60, p. 7-14.

[51] Frimmel, H. E., and Lane, K., 2005, Geochemistry of carbonate beds in the Neoproterozoic Rosh Pinah Formation, Namibia: Implications on depositional setting and hydrothermal ore formation: South African Journal of Geology, v. 108, p. 5-18.

[50] Gaucher, C., Frimmel, H.E., and Germs, G.J.B., 2005, Organic‑walled microfossils and biostratigraphy of the upper Port Nolloth Group (Namibia): implications for the latest Neoproterozoic glaciations: Geological Magazine, v. 142, p. 539-559.

2003 - 2004

[49] Frimmel, H. E., Jonasson, I., and Mubita, P., 2004, An Eburnean base metal source for sediment-hosted zinc-lead deposits in Neoproterozoic units of Namibia: Lead isotopic and geochemical evidence: Mineralium Deposita, v. 39, p. 328-343.

[48] Frimmel, H. E., and Fölling, P. G., 2004, Late Vendian closure of the Adamastor Ocean: Timing of tectonic inversion and syn-orogenic sedimentation in the Gariep Basin: Gondwana Research, v. 7, p. 685-699.

[47] Raith, J. G., Cornell, D. H., Frimmel, H. E., and de Beer, C. H., 2003, New insights into the geology of the Namaqua Tectonic Province, South Africa, from ion probe dating of detrital and metamorphic zircon: The Journal of Geology, v. 111, p. 347-366.

2001 - 2002

[46] Frimmel, H. E., 2002, Genesis of the world's largest gold deposits: Science, v. 297, p. 1815-1817.

[45] Frimmel, H. E., Fölling, P. G., and Eriksson, P., 2002, Neoproterozoic tectonic and climatic evolution recorded in the Gariep Belt, Namibia and South Africa: Basin Research, v. 14, p. 55-67.

[44] Fölling, P. G., and Frimmel, H. E., 2002, Chemostratigraphic correlation of carbonate successions in the Gariep and Saldania Belts, Namibia and South Africa: Basin Research, v. 14, p. 69-88.

[43] Frimmel, H. E., Fölling, P. G., and Diamond, R., 2001, Metamorphism of the Permo-Triassic Cape Fold Belt and its basement, South Africa: Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 73, p. 325-346.

[42] Frimmel, H. E., and Jiang, S.-Y., 2001, Marine evaporites from an oceanic island in the Neoproterozoic Adamastor ocean: Precambrian Research, v. 105, p. 57-71.

[41] Frimmel, H. E., Zartman, R. E., and Späth, A., 2001, Dating Neoproterozoic continental break-up in the Richtersveld Igneous Complex, South Africa: The Journal of Geology, v. 109, p. 493-508.

[40] Spangenberg, J., and Frimmel, H. E., 2001, Basin-internal derivation of hydrocarbons in the Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa: evidence from bulk and molecular δ13C data: Chemical Geology, v. 173, p. 339-355.

1999 - 2000

[39] Chetty, D., and Frimmel, H. E., 2000, The role of evaporites in the genesis of base metal sulphide mineralisation in the Northern Platform of the Pan-African Damara Belt, Namibia: Geochemical and fluid inclusion evidence from carbonate wall rock alteration: Mineralium Deposita, v. 35, p. 364-376.

[38] Fölling, P. G., Zartman, R. E., and Frimmel, H. E., 2000, A novel approach to double-spike Pb-Pb dating of carbonate rocks: examples from Neoproterozoic sequences in southern Africa: Chemical Geology, v. 171, p. 97-122.          

[37] Frimmel, H. E., 2000, New U-Pb zircon ages for the Kuboos pluton in the Pan-African Gariep belt, South Africa:  Cambrian mantle plume or far field collision effect?: South African Journal of Geology, v. 103, p. 207-214.

[36] Frimmel, H. E., 2000, The stratigraphy of the Chameis Sub-terrane in the Gariep Belt in southwestern Namibia: Communications of the geological survey of Namibia, v. 12, p. 179-186.

[35] Frimmel, H. E., 2000, The Pan-African Gariep Belt in southwestern Namibia and western South Africa: Communications of the Geological Survey of Namibia, v. 12, p. 197-209.

[34] Frimmel, H. E., and Board, W. S., 2000, Fluid evolution in and around the Rosh Pinah massive sulphide deposit in the external Pan-African Gariep Belt, Namibia: South African Journal of Geology, v. 103, p. 191-206.

[33] Kleinschmidt, G., Helfereich, S., Henjes-Kunst, F., Jackson, C., and Frimmel, H. E., 2000, The pre-Permo-Carboniferous rocks and structures from southern Kirwanveggen, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. Polarforschung, v. 66, p. 7-18.

[32] Frimmel, H. E., Hallbauer, D. K., and Gartz, V. H., 1999, Gold mobilizing fluids in the Witwatersrand Basin: composition and possible sources: Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 66, p. 55-81.

[31] Gartz, V. H., and Frimmel, H. E., 1999, Complex Metasomatism of an Archean Placer in the Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa: The Ventersdorp Contact Reef - Hydrothermal Aquifer?: Economic Geology, v. 94, p. 689-706.

[30] Guggenheim, S., and Frimmel, H. E., 1999, Ferrokinoshitalite, a new brittle mica species: Structural and mineralogical characterization: Canadian Mineralogist, v. 37, p. 1445-1452.

[29] Zartman, R. E., and Frimmel, H. E., 1999, Radon-generated 206Pb in hydrothermal sulphide minerals and bitumen from the Ventersdorp Contact Reef, South Africa: Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 66, p. 171-191.

1997-1998

[28] Frimmel, H. E., 1998, Detrital origin of hydrothermal Witwatersrand gold - a review (Frimmel, 1997) - Discussion and reply. Terra Nova, v. 10, p. 347-350.

[27] Frimmel, H. E., and Frank, W., 1998, Neoproterozoic tectono-thermal evolution of the Gariep Belt and its basement, Namibia/South Africa: Precambrian Research, v. 90, p. 1-28.

[26] Frimmel, H. E., 1997, Detrital origin of hydrothermal Witwatersrand gold-a review: Terra Nova, v. 9, p. 192-197.

[25] Frimmel, H. E., 1997, Chlorite thermometry in the Witwatersrand basin: Constraints on the Paleoproterozoic geotherm in the Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa: Journal of Geology, v. 105, p. 601-615.

[24] Frimmel, H. E., and Gartz, V. H., 1997, Witwatersrand gold particle chemistry matches model of metamorphosed, hydrothermally altered placer deposits: Mineralium Deposita, v. 32, p. 523-530.

1995 - 1996

[23] Frimmel, H. E., 1996, Witwatersrand iron formations and their significance to gold genesis and the composition limits of orthoamphibole: Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 56, p. 273-295.

[22] Frimmel, H. E., Hartnady, C. J. H., and  Koller, F., 1996, Geochemistry and tectonic setting of magmatic units in the Pan-African Gariep Belt, Namibia: Chemical Geology, v. 130, p. 101-121.

[21] Frimmel, H. E., Klötzli, U., and  Siegfried, P., 1996, New Pb-Pb single zircon age constraints on the timing of Neoproterozoic glaciation and continental break-up in Namibia: The Journal of Geology, v. 104, p. 459-469.

[20] Frimmel, H. E., 1995, Metamorphic evolution of the Gariep Belt: South African Journal of Geology, v. 98, p. 176-190.

[19] Frimmel, H. E., Hoffmann, D., Watkins, R. T., and  Moore, J. M., 1995, An Fe analogue of kinoshitalite from the Broken Hill massive sulfide deposit in the Namaqualand Metamorphic Complex, South Africa: American Mineralogist, v. 80, p. 833-840.

[18] Frimmel, H. E., and  van Achterbergh, E., 1995, Metamorphism of calc-silicate and associated rocks in the Pan-African Kaaimans Group, Saldania Belt, South Africa: Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 53, p. 75-102.

[17] Nowicki, T. E., Frimmel, H. E., and Waters, D. J., 1995, The occurrence of osumilite in pelitic granulites of the Namaqualand Metamorphic Complex, South Africa. - South African Journal of Geology, v. 98, p. 191-201.

[16] Laube, N., Frimmel, H. E., and Hoernes, S., 1995, Oxygen and carbon isotopic study on the genesis of the Steirischer Erzberg siderite deposit (Austria). Mineralium Deposita, v. 30, p. 285-293.

1986 - 1994

[15] Frimmel, H. E., 1994, Metamorphism of Witwatersrand gold: Exploration and Mining Geology, v. 3, p. 357-370.

[14] Frimmel, H. E., le Roex, A. P., Knight, J., and Minter, W. E. L., 1994, A case study of the postdepositio­nal alteration of the Witwatersrand Basal Reef gold placer - A reply. Economic Geology, v. 89, p. 255-257.

[13] Frimmel, H. E., Le Roex, A. P., Knight, J., and  Minter, W. E. L., 1993, A case study of the postdepositional alteration of the Witwatersrand Basal reef gold placer: Economic Geology, v. 88, p. 249-265.

[12] Minter, W. E. L., Goedhart, M. L., Knight, J., and  Frimmel, H. E., 1993, Morphology of Witwatersrand gold grains from the Basal Reef: Evidence for their detrital origin: Economic Geology, v. 88, p. 237-248.

[11] Frimmel, H. E., 1992, Isotopic fronts in hydrothermally mineralized carbonate rocks: Mineralium Deposita, v. 27, p. 257-267.

[10] Frimmel, H. E., and  Hartnady, C. J. H., 1992, Blue amphiboles and their significance for the metamorphic history of the Pan-African Gariep belt, Namibia.: Journal of metamorphic Geology, v. 10, p. 651-669.

[9] Grum, W, Frimmel, H. E., and Koller, F., 1992, Sr-Isotopenuntersuchung zur Genese der Antimonit-Lagerstätte Schlaining (Penninikum, Burgenland). Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft der Geologie- und Bergbau­studenten Österreichs, v. 38, p. 73-92.

[8] Frimmel, H. E., 1991, Isotopic constraints on fluid/rock ratios in carbonate rocks: barite-sulfide mineralization in the Schwaz Dolomite, Tyrol (Eastern Alps, Austria): Chemical Geology, v. 90, p. 195-209.

[7] Frimmel, H. E., and  Niedermayr, G., 1991,  Sr isotopes in magnesites from Permian and Triassic sediments of the Eastern Alps: Applied Geochemistry, v. 6, p. 89-96.

[6] Frimmel, H. E., 1989, Einsatzmöglichkeiten der Sr-Methode in der Lagerstät­tengeologie am Beispiel der Baryt-Lager­stätte Kogel/Brixlegg (Tirol). Archiv für Lagerstät­ten­forschung. Geologische Bundesanstalt, v. 11, p. 127-146.

[5] Frimmel, H. E., and  Papesch, W., 1989, Sr, O, and C isotope study of the Brixlegg barite deposit, Tyrol (Austria): Economic Geology, v. 85, p. 64-73.

[4] Frimmel, H. E., 1988, Metagranitoide am Westrand der Gurk­taler Decke (Oberostal­pin) - Genese und paläotekto­nische Impli­ka­tionen. Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundes­anstalt, v.131, p. 575-592.

[3] Frimmel, H. E., 1988, Strontium isotopic evidence for the origin of siderite, ankerite and magnesite mineralizations in the Eastern Alps: Mineralium Deposita, v. 23, p. 268-275.

[2] Frimmel, H. E., 1986, Petrographie, Gefügemerkmale und geochronolo­gi­sche Daten von Kris­tal­ling­eröl­len aus dem Oberkar­bon der Gurkta­ler Decke im Vergleich zum benach­barten Alt­kris­tallin. Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft der Geologie- und Bergbaustudenten Österreichs, v. 32, p. 39-65.

[1] Frimmel, H. E., 1986, Isotopengeologische Hinweise für die paläogeogra­phische Nachbar­schaft von Gurktaler Decke (Ober­ost­al­pin) und dem Altkristallin östlich der Hohen Tauern (Österreich). Schweizer mineralogisch petrographische. Mitteilungen, v. 66, p. 193 -208.


Chapters in books (peer-reviewed):

2020

[27] Frimmel, H.E., Nwaila, G.T., 2020, Geologic evidence of syngenetic gold in the Witwatersrand Goldfields, South Africa. In Sillitoe, R.H., Goldfarb, R.J., Robert, F., Simmons, S.F. (eds.) Geology of the World’s Major Gold Deposits and Provinces, Soc. Econ. Geol., Littleton, Special Publ., 23, in press.

2018 - 2019

 [26] Frimmel, H.E., 2019, The Witwatersrand Basin and its gold deposits. In Kröner, A., Hofmann, A. (eds.) The Archaean Geology of the Kaapvaal Craton, Southern Africa, Springer Nature, Cham, Regional Geology Rev., 255-275.

[25] Nwaila, G. T., Zhang, S. E., Frimmel, H. E., Manzi, M. S. D., Dohm, C., Durrheim, R. J., . . . Tolmay, L., 2019, Local and target exploration of conglomerate-hosted gold deposits using machine learning algorithms: a case study of the Witwatersrand gold ores, South Africa. Natural Resources Research, in press. doi:doi.org/10.1007/s11053-019-09498-1

[24] Basei, M.S.A., Frimmel, H.E., Campos Neto, M.C., Ganade de Araujo, C.E., de Castro, N.A., Passarelli, C.R., 2018, The tectonic history of the Southern Adamastor Ocean based on a correlation of the Kaoko and Dom Feliciano belts. In Siegesmund, S., Basei, M.A.S., Oyhantcabal, P., Oriolo, S. (eds), Geology of Southwest Gondwana. Regional Geology Reviews, Springer International Publishing, Heidelberg, 63-88.

[23] Frimmel, H.E., 2018, The Gariep Belt. In Siegesmund, S., Basei, M.A.S., Oyhantcabal, P., Oriolo, S. (eds), Geology of Southwest Gondwana. Regional Geology Reviews, Springer International Publishing, Heidelberg, 353-386.

2010 - 2011

[22] Frimmel, H.E., 2011, The Karoetjes Kop and Bloupoort Formations, Gifberg Group, South Africa. In Arnaud, E., Halverson, G. P. & Shields-Zhou, G. (eds), The Geological Record of Neoproterozoic Glaciations. Geological Society, London, Memoirs, 36, 233–237.

[21] Frimmel, H.E., 2011, The Kaigas and Numees Formations, Port Nolloth Group, in South Africa and Namibia. In Arnaud, E., Halverson, G. P. & Shields-Zhou, G. (eds), The Geological Record of Neoproterozoic Glaciations. Geological Society, London, Memoirs, 36, 223–231.

[20] Frimmel, H.E., 2011, The Chameis Gate Member, Chameis Group, Marmora Terrane, Namibia. In Arnaud, E., Halverson, G. P. & Shields-Zhou, G. (eds), The Geological Record of Neoproterozoic Glaciations. Geological Society, London, Memoirs, 36, 217–221.

2008 - 2009

[19] Frimmel, H.E., 2009, Configuration of Pan-African orogenic belts in southwestern Africa. Neoproterozoic to Early Palaeozoic evolution of Southwestern Africa.  In Gaucher, C., Sial, A.N., Halverson, G.P., Frimmel, H.E. (eds.), Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Tectonics, Global Change and Evolution: a Focus on Southwestern Gondwana, Developments in Precambrian Geology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, v. 16, p. 145-151.

[18] Frimmel, H.E., Miller, R.McG., 2009, Continental Rifting. Neoproterozoic to Early Palaeozoic evolution of Southwestern Africa. In Gaucher, C., Sial, A.N., Halverson, G.P., Frimmel, H.E. (eds.), Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Tectonics, Global Change and Evolution: a Focus on Southwestern Gondwana, Developments in Precambrian Geology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, v. 16, p. 153-159.

[17] Frimmel, H.E., Miller, R.McG., 2009, Mineral deposits. Neoproterozoic to Early Palaeozoic evolution of Southwestern Africa. In Gaucher, C., Sial, A.N., Halverson, G.P., Frimmel, H.E. (eds.), Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Tectonics, Global Change and Evolution: a Focus on Southwestern Gondwana, Developments in Precambrian Geology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, v. 16, p. 227-229.

[16] Gaucher, C., Frimmel, H.E., Germs, G.J.B., 2009, Tectonic events and palaeogeographic evolution of Southwestern Gondwana in the Neoproterozoic and Cambrian. In Gaucher, C., Sial, A.N., Halverson, G.P., Frimmel, H.E. (eds.), Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Tectonics, Global Change and Evolution: a Focus on Southwestern Gondwana, Developments in Precambrian Geology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, v. 16, p. 295-318.

[15] Gaucher, C., Sial, A.N., Halverson, G.P., Frimmel, H.E., 2009, The Neoproterozoic and Cambrian: A time of upheavals, extremes, and innovations. In Gaucher, C., Sial, A.N., Halverson, G.P., Frimmel, H.E. (eds.), Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Tectonics, Global Change and Evolution: a Focus on Southwestern Gondwana, Developments in Precambrian Geology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, v. 16, p. 3-11.

[14] Germs, G.J.B., Miller, R.McG., Frimmel, H.E., Gaucher, C., 2009, Syn- to late orogenic sedimentary basins of southwestern Africa. Neoproterozoic to Early Palaeozoic evolution of Southwestern Africa. In Gaucher, C., Sial, A.N., Halverson, G.P., Frimmel, H.E. (eds.), Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Tectonics, Global Change and Evolution: a Focus on Southwestern Gondwana, Developments in Precambrian Geology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, v. 16, p. 183-203.

[13] Miller, R.McG., Frimmel, H.E., 2009, Syn- to post-orogenic magmatism. Neoproterozoic to Early Palaeozoic evolution of Southwestern Africa:In Gaucher, C., Sial, A.N., Halverson, G.P., Frimmel, H.E. (eds.), Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Tectonics, Global Change and Evolution: a Focus on Southwestern Gondwana, Developments in Precambrian Geology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, v.16, p. 219-226.

[12] Miller, R.McG., Frimmel, H.E., Halverson, G.P., 2009, Passive ontinental margin evolution. Neoproterozoic to Early Palaeozoic evolution of southwestern Africa. In Gaucher, C., Sial, A.N., Halverson, G.P., Frimmel, H.E. (eds.), Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Tectonics, Global Change and Evolution: a Focus on Southwestern Gondwana, Developments in Precambrian Geology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, v. 16, p. 161-181.

[11] Miller, R.McG., Frimmel, H.E., Will, T.M., 2009, Geodynamic synthesis of the Damara Orogen sensu lato. Neoproterozoic to Early Palaeozoic evolution of Southwestern Africa. In Gaucher, C., Sial, A.N., Halverson, G.P., Frimmel, H.E. (eds.), Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Tectonics, Global Change and Evolution: a Focus on Southwestern Gondwana, Developments in Precambrian Geology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, v. 16, p. 231-235.

[10] Kaufman, A.J., Sial, A.N., Frimmel, H.E., Misi, A., 2009, Neoproterozoic to Cambrian palaeoclimatic events in southwestern Gondwana. In Gaucher, C., Sial, A.N., Halverson, G.P., Frimmel, H.E. (eds.), Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Tectonics, Global Change and Evolution: a Focus on Southwestern Gondwana, Developments in Precambrian Geology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, v. 16, p. 369-388.

[9] Will, T.M., Miller, R.McG., Frimmel, H.E., 2009, Orogenic tectono-thermal evolution. Neoproterozoic to Early Palaeozoic evolution of Southwestern Africa: In Gaucher, C., Sial, A.N., Halverson, G.P., Frimmel, H.E. (eds.), Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Tectonics, Global Change and Evolution: a Focus on Southwestern Gondwana, Developments in Precambrian Geology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, v. 16, p. 205-218.

 [8] Frimmel, H.E., 2008, Neoproterozoic Gariep Orogen. In: Miller, R. McG. (ed.) The Geology of Namibia, Geol. Surv. Namibia. Windhoek, v. 2, p. 14-1 – 14-39.

1996 - 2006

[7] Gresse, P. G., von Veh, M. W., and Frimmel, H. E., 2006, Namibian (Neoproterozoic) to Early Cambrian successions, in Johnson, M. R., Anhaeusser, C. R., and Thomas, R. J. (eds.), The Geology of South Africa, Geological Society of South Africa/Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, p. 395-420, ISBN 978-1-919908-77-9.

[6] Frimmel, H. E., Groves, D. I., Kirk, J., Ruiz, J., Chesley, J., and Minter, W. E. L., 2005, The formation and preservation of the Witwatersrand goldfields, the largest gold province in the world, in Hedenquist, J.W., Thompson, J.F.H., Goldfarb, R.J., and Richards, J.P. (eds.), One Hundredth Anniversary Volume, Society of Economic Geologists, p. 769-797, ISBN 978-1-887483-01-8.

[5] Frimmel, H. E., 2004, Neoproterozoic sedimentation rates and timing of glaciations – a southern African perspective, in Eriksson, P. G., Altermann, W., Nelson, D. R., Mueller, W. U., and Catuneanu, O., eds., The Precambrian Earth: Tempos and Events, Developments in Precambrian Geology v. 12, Amsterdam, Elsevier, p. 459‑473, ISBN 0-444-51506-2.

[4] Frimmel, H. E., 2004, Formation of a late Mesoproterozoic supercontinent: The South Africa ‑ East Antarctica connection, in Eriksson, P. G., Altermann, W., Nelson, D. R., Mueller, W. U., and Catuneanu, O., eds., The Precambrian Earth: Tempos and Events, Developments in Precambrian Geology v.12, Amsterdam, Elsevier, p. 240‑255, ISBN 0-444-51506-2.

[3] Frimmel, H. E., and Minter, W. E. L., 2002, Recent developments concerning the geological history and genesis of the Witwatersrand gold deposits, South Africa, in Goldfarb, R. J., and Nielsen, R. L., eds., Integrated Methods for Discovery: Global Exploration in the Twenty-First Century, Society of Economic Geologists Special Publication: Littleton, Society of Economic Geologists v.9, p. 17-45, ISBN1-887483-91-8.

[2] Frimmel, H. E., and Minter, W. E. L., 2002, An overview of geological processes that controlled  the distribution of gold  in the Witwatersrand deposits, in Cooke, D. R., and Pongratz, J., eds., Giant Ore Deposits: Characteristics, genesis and exploration, CODES Special Publication, 4, University of Tasmania, p. 221-241, ISBN 1-86295-040-7.

[1] Frimmel, H. E., Deane, J. G., and Chadwick, P. J., 1996, Pan-African tectonism and the genesis of base metal sulfide deposits in the northern foreland of the Damara Orogen, Namibia, in Sangster, D. F., ed., Carbonate-hosted lead-zinc deposits, Littleton, Society of Economic Geologists No. 4, p. 204-217, ISBN 1-887483-95-0.


Peer-reviewed conference proceedings:

2017

[33] Frimmel, H.E., 2017, Gold through time and space. In Mercier-Langevin, P., Dube, B., Bardoux, M., Ross, P.-S., Dion, C. (eds.), Mineral Resources to Discover, Proc. 14th SGA Biennial Meeting, 20-23 August 2017, Quebec City, Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits, vol. 1, 3-6.

[32] Höhn, S., Frimmel, H.E., Debaille, V., Pasava, J., Kuulmann, L., Debouge, W., 2017,  Metamorphogenic base metal mineralization at the margin of a nappe complex: the example of Kupferberg, Germany. In In Mercier-Langevin, P., Dube, B., Bardoux, M., Ross, P.-S., Dion, C. (eds.), Mineral Resources to Discover, Proc. 14th SGA Biennial Meeting, 20-23 August 2017, Quebec City, Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits, vol. 2, 605-608.

[31] Kawohl, A., Frimmel, H.E., Bite, A., Whymark, W., 2017, What’s Inside the Temagami geophysical anomaly, Sudbury District, Ontario? In In Mercier-Langevin, P., Dube, B., Bardoux, M., Ross, P.-S., Dion, C. (eds.), Mineral Resources to Discover, Proc. 14th SGA Biennial Meeting, 20-23 August 2017, Quebec City, Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits, vol. 4, 1543-1546.

[30] Nwaila, G., Frimmel, H.E., 2017, Geochemistry of marine shales in the West Rand and Central Rand groups of the Mesoarchaean Witwatersrand Basin: implications for sedimentary gold endowment. In Mercier-Langevin, P., Dube, B., Bardoux, M., Ross, P.-S., Dion, C. (eds.), Mineral Resources to Discover, Proc. 14th SGA Biennial Meeting, 20-23 August 2017, Quebec City, Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits, vol. 1, 75-78.

2014 - 2015

[29] Frimmel, H.E., 2015, Onset of crustal gold cycle triggered by first oxygenic photosynthesis. In André-Mayer , A.-S., Cathelineau, M., Muchez, P., Pirard, E., Sindern, S. (eds.) Mineral Resources in a Sustainable World, Proc. 13th Biennial SGA Meeting, 24-27 August 2015, Nancy, Université de Lorraine, v. 1, 25-28.

[28] Höhn, S., Frimmel, H.E., Koglin, N., 2015, Multi-stage sulfidation at Bavaria’s largest Cu-Zn deposit (Kupferberg/Germany). In André-Mayer , A.-S., Cathelineau, M., Muchez, P., Pirard, E., Sindern, S. (eds.) Mineral Resources in a Sustainable World, Proc. 13th Biennial SGA Meeting, 24-27 August 2015, Nancy, Université de Lorraine, v. 5, 1917-1920.

[27] Hölzing, A., Frimmel, H.E., Voland, V., Dremel, K., Zabler, S., Minter, W.E.L., 2015, The cover of Mineralium Deposita’s anniversary volume uncovered. In André-Mayer , A.-S., Cathelineau, M., Muchez, P., Pirard, E., Sindern, S. (eds.) Mineral Resources in a Sustainable World, Proc. 13th Biennial SGA Meeting, 24-27 August 2015, Nancy, Université de Lorraine, v.4, 1407-1410.

[26] Nwaila, T.G., Frimmel, H.E., Minter, W.E.L., Beukes, N., 2015, Provenance and geochemical variations in shales of the Mesoarchaean Witwatersrand Supergroup. In André-Mayer , A.-S., Cathelineau, M., Muchez, P., Pirard, E., Sindern, S. (eds.) Mineral Resources in a Sustainable World, Proc. 13th Biennial SGA Meeting, 24-27 August 2015, Nancy, Université de Lorraine, v. 1, 169-172.

2012 - 2013

[25] Frimmel, H.E., Schedel, S., Depiné, M., Kern, M., Brätz, H., 2013, Uraninite chemistry as provenance tool. In Jonsson E. et al. (eds.) Mineral deposit research for a high-tech world. Proc. 12th Biennial SGA Meeting, 12-15 August 2013, Uppsala, Geological Survey of Sweden, p. 1592-1593.

[24] Lohmeyer, M., Frimmel, H.E., 2013, Generation of a GIS-based mineral potential map of the Neoproterozoic Gariep Belt in Namibia. In Jonsson E. et al. (eds.) Mineral deposit research for a high-tech world. Proc. 12th Biennial SGA Meeting, 12-15 August 2013, Uppsala, Geological Survey of Sweden, p. 480-483.

[23] Pašava, J., Vymazalová, A., Dobeš, P., Frimmel, H., Jukov, A.V., Koneev, R.I., 2013, The importance of black shales in the origin of the Amantaytau orogenic gold deposit in Uzbekistan: evidence from pyrite chemistry and sulfur isotope data. In Jonsson E. et al. (eds.) Mineral deposit research for a high-tech world. Proc. 12th Biennial SGA Meeting, 12-15 August 2013, Uppsala, Geological Survey of Sweden, p. 1174-1177.

2010 – 2011

[22] Frimmel, H.E., Müller, J., 2011, Medium-term uranium supply and demand economics. In Barra, F., Reich, M., Campos, E. Tornos, F. (eds.) Let’s Talk Ore Deposits. Proc. 11th Biennial SGA Meeting, 26-29 September 2011, Antofagasta, Ediciones Universidad Católica del Norte, p. 938-940.

[21] Koglin, N., Gomes, A.A.S. Jr., Cabral, A.R., Frimmel, H.E., Minter, W.E.L., 2011, Constraints on the auriferous Moeda Formation metaconglomerate, Minas Gerais, Brazil: whole-rock geochemistry and mineral chemistry of tourmaline. . In Barra, F., Reich, M., Campos, E. Tornos, F. (eds.) Let’s Talk Ore Deposits. Proc. 11th Biennial SGA Meeting, 26-29 September 2011, Antofagasta, Ediciones Universidad Católica del Norte, p. 876-878.

2007 - 2009

[20] Frimmel, H., Emsbo, P., Koenig, A.E, 2009, The source of Witwatersrand Gold: Evidence from uraninite chemistry. In Williams, P.J. et al (eds.) Smart Science for Exploration and Mining. Proc. 10th Biennial SGA Meeting, 17-20 August 2009, Townsville, v.1, p. 353-355.

[19] Koglin, N., Frimmel, H., Minter, W.E.L., Brätz, H., 2009, Trace element characteristics of different pyrite types from Mesoarchean to Palaeoproterozoic placer deposits. In Williams, P.J. et al. (eds.) Smart Science for Exploration and Mining. Proc. 10th Biennial SGA Meeting, 17-20 August 2009, Townsville, v. 1, p. 363-365.

[18] Frimmel, H.E., 2007, Gold Endowment of the Earth’s Crust Over Time. Andrew, C. et al. (eds.), Digging Deeper, Proc. 9th Biennial SGA Meeting, 20-23 August 2007, Irish Assoc. Econ. Geol., Dublin, v. 1, p. 11-14.

[17] Frimmel, H.E., Spangenberg, J.E,, 2007, Molecular and Compound-specific Isotopic Composition of Hydrocarbons in Lower Cambrian Black Shales from the Yangtze Platform, South China. Andrew, C. et al. (eds.), Digging Deeper, Proc. 9th Biennial SGA Meeting, 20-23 August 2007, Irish Assoc. Econ. Geol., Dublin, v. 1, p. 801-804.

 [16] Lehrmann, B., Frimmel, H.E., 2007, Mesoarchaean Basement of the Witwatersrand: A Possible Source of the Gold? Andrew, C. et al. (eds.), Digging Deeper, Proc. 9th Biennial SGA Meeting, 20-23 August 2007, Irish Assoc. Econ. Geol., Dublin, v. 1, p. 15-18.

 [15] Yang, X.-Y., Ling, M.-X., Frimmel, H.E., 2007, Geochemistry of Sandstone-Type Uranium Deposits in the Mesozoic Ordos Basin, North China. Andrew, C. et al. (eds.), Digging Deeper, Proc. 9th Biennial SGA Meeting, 20-23 August 2007, Irish Assoc. Econ. Geol., Dublin, v. 2, p. 1153-1156.

2005 - 2006

[14] Basei, M.A.S., Frimmel, H.E., Nutman, A., Preciozzi, F., 2006, Provenance and depositional age of the Dom Feliciano Belt supracrustal units, Brazil – Uruguay: Correlations with SW-Africa. In Gaucher, C., Bossi, J., eds., V South American Symposium on Isotope Geology, Punta del Este, 24-27 August 2006, p. 45-48, ISBN 9974-0-0327-X.

[13] Frimmel, H.E., Basei, M.A.S., 2006, Tracking down the Neoproterozoic connection between southern Africa and South America – a revised geodynamic model for SW-Gondwana amalgamation. in Gaucher, C., Bossi, J., eds., V South American Symposium on Isotope Geology, Punta del Este, 24-27 August 2006, p. 94-97, ISBN 9974-0-0327-X.

[12] Frimmel, H. E., 2005, The world's largest gold province: Implications on Archaean atmospheric evolution, in Mao, J., and Bierlein, F. P., eds., Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge, Proceedings of the 8th Biennial SGA Meeting, Beijing, 18-21 August 2005, Heidelberg, Springer, v. 2, p. 949-952.

[11] Frimmel, H. E., Minter, W. E. L., Chesley, J., Kirk, J., and  Ruiz, J., 2005, Short-range gold mobilisation in palaeoplacer deposits, in Mao, J., and Bierlein, F. P., eds., Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge, Proceedings of the 8th Biennial SGA Meeting, Beijing, 18-21 August 2005, Heidelberg, Springer, v. 2, p. 953-956.

1999 - 2004

[10] Frimmel, H. E., Groves, D. I., Kirk, J., Ruiz, J., Chesley, J., and  Minter, W. E. L., 2004, The Witwatersrand gold supergiant: reasons for its uniqueness and consequences for exploration, in Muhling, J., Groves, D. I., Kenworthy, S., Knox-Robinson, C., and Vielreicher, N., eds., SEG2004, Predictive Mineral Discovery Under Cover: Perth, Geoconferences Inc., University of Western Australia, p. 191-194.

[9] Frimmel, H. E. and Jonasson, I., 2003, The controls on Neoproterozoic base metal mineralization. In: Eliopoulos, D.G. et al. (Eds.), Mineral Exploration and Sustainable Development, 7th Biennial SGA Meeting, Athens, 24-28 August 2003, Millpress, Rotterdam, v. 2, p. 661-664.

[8] Frimmel, H. E., 2001, Geodynamic and palaeoclimatic setting of the Neoproterozoic Rosh Pinah Zn-Pb province, southwestern Namibia. Piestrzynski A. et al. (eds.), Mineral Deposits at the Beginning of the 21st Century, Proc. 6th Biennial SGA-SEG Meeting, 26-29 August 2001, Krakow, Balkema (Rotterdam), 129-132.

[7] Frimmel, H. E., Chetty, D., Board, W. S., 1999, Neoproterozoic evaporites and metallogene­sis in Pan-African tectonic belts in southwestern Africa.  In: Stanley, C. J. (ed.) Mineral deposits: Processes to Processing, 5th Biennial SGA Meeting and 10th Quadrennial IAGOD Symposium, 22-25 August 1999, London, Balkema (Rotterdam), p. 943-946.

[6] Spangenberg, J., Frimmel, H. E., 1999, Tracking the origin of organic matter in the Witwaters­rand Basin using 13C/12C analysis of individual hydrocarbons. In: Stanley, C. J. (ed.) Mineral deposits: Processes to Processing, 5th Biennial SGA Meeting and 10th Quadrennial IAGOD Symposium, 22-25 August 1999, London, Balkema (Rotterdam), p. 271-274.

1991 - 1997

[5] Chetty, D., Verran, D., Frimmel, H. E., le Roex, A. P., 1997, The Khusib Springs Cu-Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, Otavi Mountain Land, Namibia - mineralisation of the "Tsumeb-type"? In: Papunen, H. (ed.), Research and exploration - where do they meet? 4th Biennial SGA Meeting, 11-13 August 1997, Rotterdam, Balkema, p. 531-534.

[4] Frimmel, H. E., and Gartz, V. H., 1997, Which fluids caused the mobilisation of the gold in the Archean Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa? In: Papunen, H. (ed.) Research and exploration - where do they meet? 4th Biennial SGA Meeting, 11-13 August 1997, Rotterdam, Balkema, p.189-192.

[3] Frimmel, H. E., Hoffmann, D., and Moore, J. M., 1993, Preservation of syn-depositional geochemical characteristics of the Broken Hill massive sulphide deposits, South Africa, during upper amphibolite facies metamorphism. In: Fenoll Hach-Ali, P, Torres-Ruiz, J, Gervilla, F (eds), Current Research in Geology Applied to Ore Deposits, Univ. Granada, Granada, p. 303-306.

[2] Frimmel, H. E., 1991, Isotopic fronts in hydrothermally mineralized carbonate rocks. In: Pagel, M., and Leroy, J. L. (eds), Source, Transport and Deposition of Metals, Rotterdam (Balkema), 37-40.

[1] Frimmel, H. E., and Minter, W. E. L., 1991, The mobility of Witwaters­rand gold during post-depositional alteration. In: Pagel, M., and Leroy, J. L. (eds), Source, Transport and Deposition of Metals, Rotterdam (Balkema), p. 657-660.


Books:

2018 - 2019

[2] Höhn, S., Frimmel, H.E., 2018, Die Kupferberger Erzlagerstätte und ihre geologische Umgebung. WIRmachenDRUCK; Würzburg, 41 p.

[1] Okrusch, M., Frimmel, H.E., 2019, Mineralogy – An Introduction to Minerals, Rocks and Mineral Deposits. Springer Nature, Heidelberg, 770 p. (in press).

Publikationen

2017            Mineralium Deposita Best Paper Award

since 2007   Listed in the Cambridge Blue Book

since 2007   Listed in the International Directory of Experts and Expertise, American Bibliographical Institute

2003-2008  National Research Foundation (South Africa) - B1 rating (“Researchers who enjoy considerable international recognition by their peers for the high quality of their recent research outputs and who are considered by some peers as leading international scholars in their field”)

2000-2003  University of Cape Town Merit Award

1998-2002  National Research Foundation (South Africa) - B2 rating

since 1998   Listed in Marquis' Who's Who in the World and Who's Who in Science and Engineering

1995            South Africa’s Foundation for Research Development President's Award (support period 1995-1998).

1991            SGA Daum Prize

  • Mineralium Deposita (since 1999)
  • Brazilian Journal of Geology (2012-2015)
  • The Open Geology Journal (since 2007, Chief Editor 2010)
  • Mineralogy and Petrology (1996-2002)
  • Africa Geoscience Review (1994/95, 1999-2006)
  • South African Journal of Geology (1996-98)
  • Alpine Geology, formely Mitt. Ges. Geol. Berg­baustud. Österr. (1984-85)

2009
Co-editor of a book in the series Developments in Precambrian Geology (Elsevier, v.16)

2008
Co-editor of a Special Issue of Gondwana Research

2004
Co-editor of a Special Issue of Gondwana Research

1999
Editor of a Special Issue of Mineralogy and Petrology on Witwatersrand and redeford

1999
Editor of a Special Issue of Journal of African Earth Sciences

1995
Guest-editor of a Special Issue of the South African Journal of Geology

Reviewer for 28 leading international professional journals (incl. Nature, Science) and 13 national research agencies.

Chief supervisor of:

Universiy of Würzburg (since 2005)

10 BSc theses (S. Höhn, 2010, M. Kern, 2010, E. Stenzl, 2012, A. Goll, 2014, K. Edelmann, 2014, T. Jungkunz, 2016, F. Onkels, 2016, F. Schmitt, 2016, W. Hofmockel, 2018, D. Scheer, 2019, E. Evenz, 2019),

11 diploma theses (M. Wilde, 2006, B. Lehmann, 2007, D. Heeg, 2009, R. Scherer,  2010, H. Poppitz,  2010, H. Hill, 2011, R. Ramoz, 2012, S. Schedel, 2012, A. Donadel, 2012, M. Lohmeyer, 2012, M. Ewers, 2013),

10 MSc theses (M. Decker, 2012, T. Spiegl, 2013, S. Höhn, 2013, A. von Spee, 2014, S. Heinze, 2014, C. Steffan, 2015, L. Kuulmann, 2016, S. Köhler, 2016, A. Kawohl, 2018, F. Schmidt, in progress), and

eight PhD theses (J. Müller, 2011, M. Depine, abandoned, H. Poppitz, in progress, S. Höhn, 2017, G. Nwaila, 2017, W. Whymark, in progress, E. Garayp, in progress, A. Kawohl, in progress),

co-supervisor of five PhD students (H. Zhao, Univ. Nanjing, 2011; C. K. Mosoh-Bambi, 2013; Z. Liu, Central South Univ., China, 2015; S. Tewari, Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi, India, 2016; W.F. Silva, Univ. Brasilia, 2019).

University of Cape Town (1990 – 2004)

Chief supervisor of 18 BSc Honours students, 9 MSc and 3 PhD students who have successfully completed their studies; Co-supervisor of 2 PhD students.

Lehrstuhlinhaber, Management und Organisation des Lehrstuhls, inkl. Mineralogisches Museum